Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.

Erosion in a Bottle

Soil erosion is the process of moving soil by water or wind — this happens naturally or through human interference. Preventing soil erosion is important because nutrients are lost, and sediment that accumulates in waterways impacts life there. Conserving soil depends on how it is protected by plants and coverings.
You will model erosion by water and compare the amounts of runoff and soil loss generated from three different ground cover types.

Mining Creates Reservoirs and Habitats

There is an important interconnection between local mines and quarries that later become reservoirs and supply crucial water resources to local communities. The life cycle of a mine has different phases. Production supplies important resources such as construction materials and other important minerals. Then with the mine’s closure and reclamation, it is sometimes used for freshwater
storage and supply for the local community. Another part of a quarry’s life cycle can be to offer new habitats and support biodiversity.

Modeling Earth’s Water — Fresh vs. Salty

We drink water every day — we can’t live without it! About 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by water, but how much of Earth’s water is actually drinkable? In other words, how much is liquid freshwater — not salty or frozen?

• Globe or world map
• Water cycle diagram
• 100 gummy bears
• Plastic knife or scissors
• Computer with internet access
• Camera

Visualizing Your Watershed

Watersheds can be as small as a lake or thousands of square miles. The natural or human-made surface of the land and the sediments and rocks below are all part of a watershed. Rainfall
supplies watersheds, and water moves across the surface or infiltrates and moves through the ground.

In this activity you will use a computer model to explore the movement of water within your watershed.


• Computer with internet

Water Quality, Dissolved Oxygen, and Phosphorous

Tap water from the kitchen has very different properties from water in a stream or a pond, even if they might appear similar. Water quality refers to the physical and chemical properties of water
that make it suitable for a particular use based on biological, physical, and chemical characteristics. A fish might live in sedimentrich water at the bottom of a lake, but you would not want to drink it!

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