Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.
Support an argument that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth.
Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.
Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment.
Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.